Detailed Analysis of Lithium Battery Packs

With the continuous support of the country for new energy, lithium batteries have also been a focus of attention. Do you know about lithium batteries? Today, let's study the classification, application fields, and various parameters of lithium batteries together. First of all, for the lithium batteries types, we can classify them according to their shape, shell, material, and so on.

Classification of lithium batteries

Classification by shape

Cylindrical lithium battery: The nomenclature of its model is generally a five-digit number. The first two digits are the diameter of the battery, and the middle two digits are the height of the battery, in millimetres. The most commonly used cylindrical lithium batteries are 18650, 21700, 26650, 32650 and so on. Square lithium batteries usually refer to aluminium or steel square lithium batteries, which are widely used in exploration and mapping, medical equipment, etc.

Classification by shell

Steel-shell lithium batteries: due to the heavy weight of the steel shell, their safety is not very good. However, the stability of steel is strong. In the later period, many manufacturers greatly increased their safety performance through optimized design structures such as safety valves and PTC. Some manufacturers have replaced the steel shell directly, using aluminium shells and soft packs, such as the lithium battery pack in mobile phones nowadays.

Aluminium shell lithium battery: due to its lightweight and slightly better safety than steel shell lithium-ion batteries, it is commonly known as a large monomer in the industry. Soft-packed lithium batteries: due to their lightweight, low mould opening cost, high safety and other advantages, they are widely used by many merchants.

Classification by positive electrode material

There are currently four types of positive electrode materials used in bulk lithium batteries: lithium cobalt oxide batteries, lithium manganate batteries, lithium iron phosphate batteries, and lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide batteries.

Classification by application field

  • Consumer products. Mainly used in digital products, mobile phones, mobile power supplies, and other electronic devices. Commonly used are 18650 batteries, lithium polymer batteries.

  • Industrial field. Mainly used in medical electronics, photovoltaic energy storage, railway infrastructure, security communications, and other fields. Commonly used are storage, power lithium batteries, lithium iron phosphate batteries, polymer lithium batteries, etc.

  • Special fields. Mainly used in aerospace, ships, satellite navigation, high-energy physics, and other fields. Commonly used are ultra-low-temperature lithium batteries, high-temperature lithium batteries, lithium titanate batteries, explosion-proof lithium batteries, etc.

Common parameters of lithium batteries


The potential difference between the positive and negative electrodes of a lithium battery is called the nominal voltage of the lithium battery. The nominal voltage is determined by the electrode potential of the electrode material and the concentration of the internal electrolyte. The working voltage refers to the voltage displayed during the discharge process after the lithium battery is connected to the load and is also known as the discharge voltage. The initial voltage at the beginning of lithium battery discharge is called the initial voltage. The commonly used voltages of lithium batteries are 12V, 24V, 36V, 48V, 60V, 72V, etc.


The amount of electricity that a lithium battery can provide under certain discharge conditions is called the capacity of the lithium battery, expressed by the symbol C. The commonly used unit is ampere-hours, and its capacity is influenced by the positive electrode material used, the temperature of the battery, the discharge rate, and the voltage, etc.

Internal resistance

The internal resistance of the lithium battery pack refers to the resistance that the current encounters when passing through the interior of the lithium battery, which will affect the voltage of the lithium battery.

Cycle life

The cycle life of a lithium battery is generally represented by the number of times it is used, and one cycle represents a complete charging and discharging cycle of the lithium battery.

Discharge rate

The discharge rate refers to the current magnitude when the lithium battery is discharged, generally represented by C, and expressed by the formula: discharge rate = discharge current/nominal capacity.

Operating temperature

The operating temperature of a lithium battery refers to the ambient and battery temperature that the lithium battery can adapt to while maintaining normal charging and discharging, and the discharge platform decreases to a certain extent at low temperatures. High temperature can affect the cycling performance of the battery and cause slight expansion. Therefore, the battery is generally recommended to operate within a temperature range of 0-40°C, except for low-temperature lithium battery packs that can be used in low-temperature environments.

Lithium battery packs can be classified according to different shells, application fields, materials, etc., and the common parameters of lithium batteries are also listed to facilitate your understanding of the parameters when selecting lithium battery packs.

As a professional lithium-ion battery China manufacturer, Lithium Storage provides you with quality Li-ion battery packs at great wholesale prices. Feel free to contact us at any time.

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